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In the 1950s or 1960s, the Nile perch was released into the Lake Victoria. In just a few decades, the large, voracious predator has all but eliminated the other species of fish, turning the lake into an ecological wasteland. ‘But economically, it’s good’—and indeed, perch fillet is Tanzania’s best selling export to Europe. Fishermen, factory workers, civil servants, pilots of cargo aircrafts, delegates of the European Commission, communities living around Lake Victoria: plenty of people are involved in some way in this new industry. But if Africa exports hundreds of tons of premium-priced fish each day, what exactly do Africans get in return?